Socioeconomic variations in the frequency of parent number talk: A meta-analysis

Dearing, E.; Casey, B.; Davis-Kean, P.E.; Eason, S.; Gunderson, E.; Levine, S.C.; Laski, E.V.; Libertus, M.; Lu, L.; Lombardi, C.M.; et al. Socioeconomic Variations in the Frequency of Parent Number Talk: A Meta-Analysis. Educ. Sci. 2022, 12, 312. DOI:



Using data from 12 studies, we meta-analyze correlations between parent number talk during interactions with their young children (mean sample age ranging from 22 to 79 months) and two aspects of family socioeconomics, parent education, and family income. Potential variations in correlation sizes as a function of study characteristics were explored. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between the amount of number talk in parent-child interactions and both parent education and family income (i.e., r = 0.12 for education and 0.14 for income). Exploratory moderator analyses provided some preliminary evidence that child age, as well as the average level of and variability in socioeconomic status, may moderate effect sizes. The implications of these findings are discussed with special attention to interpreting the practical importance of the effect sizes in light of family strengths and debate surrounding “word gaps”.

ver artículo completo